Posted by: isaraffee | August 9, 2009

Using X

Using X

Checking your XFree86 version

# /usr/X11R6/bin/X -version

XFree86 Version 4.0.3 / X Window System
(protocol Version 11, revision 0, vendor release 6400)
Release Date: 16 March 2001
If the server is older than 6-12 months, or if your card is
newer than the above date, look for a newer version before
reporting problems. (See http://www.XFree86.Org/FAQ)
Operating System: Linux 2.4.1-20mdksmp i686 [ELF]
Module Loader present

Checking via rpm commands to check for installed X packages

# rpm -qa | grep X
XFree86-xfs-4.0.3-7mdk
XFree86-4.0.3-7mdk
libXaw3d7-1.5-9mdk
XFree86-100dpi-fonts-4.0.3-7mdk
ghostscript-module-X-5.50-67mdk
XFree86-libs-4.0.3-7mdk
XFree86-75dpi-fonts-4.0.3-7mdk
emacs-X11-20.7-16mdk
XFree86-server-4.0.3-7mdk

You then type the following command to read the information on the package.

# rpm -qi XFree86-xfs-4.0.3-7mdk
Name : XFree86-xfs Relocations: (not relocateable)
Version : 4.0.3 Vendor: MandrakeSoft
Release : 7mdk Build Date: Sun 08 Apr 2001 04:49:46 PM SGT
Install date: Sat 23 Apr 2005 01:08:48 AM SGT Build Host: bi.mandrakesoft.com
Group : System/Servers Source RPM: XFree86-4.0.3-7mdk.src.rpm
Size : 536213 License: MIT
Packager : Frederic Lepied <flepied@mandrakesoft.com>
Summary : Font server for XFree86
Description :
This is a font server for XFree86. You can serve fonts to other X servers
remotely with this package, and the remote system will be able to use all
fonts installed on the font server, even if they are not installed on the
remote computer.

# rpm -qi XFree86-4.0.3-7mdk
Name : XFree86 Relocations: (not relocateable)
Version : 4.0.3 Vendor: MandrakeSoft
Release : 7mdk Build Date: Sun 08 Apr 2001 04:49:46 PM SGT
Install date: Sat 23 Apr 2005 01:10:03 AM SGT Build Host: bi.mandrakesoft.com
Group : System/XFree86 Source RPM: XFree86-4.0.3-7mdk.src.rpm
Size : 18352697 License: MIT
Packager : Frederic Lepied <flepied@mandrakesoft.com>
Summary : Part of the XFree86 implementation of the X Window System.
Description :
If you want to install the X Window System (TM) on
your machine, you'll need to install XFree86.

The X Window System provides the base technology
for developing graphical user interfaces. Simply stated,
X draws the elements of the GUI on the user's screen and
builds methods for sending user interactions back to the
application. X also supports remote application deployment--running an
application on another computer while viewing the input/output
on your machine. X is a powerful environment which supports
many different applications, such as games, programming tools,
graphics programs, text editors, etc. XFree86 is the version of
X which runs on Linux, as well as other platforms.

This package contains the basic fonts, programs and documentation
for an X workstation. However, this package doesn't provide the
program which you will need to drive your video hardware. To
control your video card, you'll need the particular X server
package which corresponds to your computer's video card.

In addition to installing this package, you will need to install
the XFree86 package which corresponds to your video card, the
X11R6-contrib package, the Xconfigurator package and the XFree86-libs
package. You may also need to install one of the XFree86 fonts packages.

And finally, if you are going to develop applications that run as
X clients, you will also need to install XFree86-devel.

# rpm -qi XFree86-server-4.0.3-7mdk
Name : XFree86-server Relocations: (not relocateable)
Version : 4.0.3 Vendor: MandrakeSoft
Release : 7mdk Build Date: Sun 08 Apr 2001 04:49:46 PM SGT
Install date: Sat 23 Apr 2005 01:50:05 AM SGT Build Host: bi.mandrakesoft.com
Group : System/XFree86 Source RPM: XFree86-4.0.3-7mdk.src.rpm
Size : 18810547 License: MIT
Packager : Frederic Lepied <flepied@mandrakesoft.com>
Summary : The X server and associated modules
Description :
XFree86-server is the new generation of X server from XFree86.

The contents of package XFree86-server-4.0.3-7mdk

# rpm -ql XFree86-server-4.0.3-7mdk|more
/usr/X11R6/bin/XFree86
/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/XF86Config-4.eg
/usr/X11R6/lib/modules/codeconv/libARABIC.
and so on

Versions of XFree86

There are 2 main versions:

XFree v3 and XFree v4

In either version of X, the file /etc/X11/X is actually a link to the X server you want to run

# cd /etc/X11
#ls -l X
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 27 Apr 3 11:14 X -> ../../usr/X11R6/bin/XFree86*
This shows the /etc/X11/X file is linked to /usr/X11R6/bin/Xfree86, which is the X server. The file /usr/X11R6/bin/XFree86* is the X serverfor v4 and will always be the destinaton of the lonk.

Important
If you are working with X, you would want to locate the X server. Search for XFree86

Finding XFree86

# find / -name "XFree86" -print
find: /mnt/cdrom: Input/output error
find: /mnt/floppy: Input/output error
find: /mnt/usbking: Input/output error
find: /proc/1030/fd: No such file or directory
/usr/lib/menu/XFree86
/usr/X11R6/bin/XFree86

Fnding X

# find / -name "X" -print
find: /mnt/cdrom: Input/output error
find: /mnt/floppy: Input/output error
find: /mnt/usbking: Input/output error
/etc/X11/X
find: /proc/1030/fd: No such file or directory
/usr/share/terminfo/X
/usr/lib/python2.0/site-packages/pynche/X
/usr/X11R6/bin/X

But remember, the file /etc/X11/X is a link as shown below
# ls -l /etc/X11/X
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 27 Apr 3 11:14 /etc/X11/X -> ../../usr/X11R6/bin/XFree86*

Configuring an X server and the XF86Config file

The configuration file for the X server is XF86Config 

Find this file
# find / -name "XF86Config" -print
find: /mnt/cdrom: Input/output error
find: /mnt/floppy: Input/output error
find: /mnt/usbking: Input/output error
/etc/X11/XF86Config

XFree86 v4 uses a configuration file named XF86Config-4#

The file is broken up into several sections that have the following syntax:

Section "Section Name"

Commands e.g.
FontPath "unix/:-1"

EndSection

The following sections are used in the XF86Config file, and usually in this order:

# more XF86Config-4 | grep "^Section"
Section "Files"
Section "ServerFlags"
Section "InputDevice"
Section "InputDevice"
Section "Module"
Section "Monitor"
Section "Device"
Section "Device"
Section "Screen"
Section "ServerLayout"

If yo manually edit this file, make sure you make a backup of the old configuration file:

# ll -rt
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 14351 Apr 3 11:13 XF86Config.old
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5478 Apr 3 11:13 XF86Config-4.old
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5327 Apr 3 11:14 XF86Config-4
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 15874 Apr 3 11:14 XF86Config@-- 1#

Files Section 

Section "Files"

RgbPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/rgb"

# Multiple FontPath entries are allowed (they are concatenated together)
# By default, Mandrake 6.0 and later now use a font server independent of
# the X server to render fonts.

FontPath "unix/:-1"

EndSection#

This example uses one font path. The string "FontPath "unix/:-1" defines the font server. Other configuratin may have two font paths e.g

FontPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TrueType"
FontPath "unix/:-1"

A font server can be run either on the local system or across the network. It can provide fonts for many systems at one time. The line specified above dictates the use of a local font server , since the port number is -1.
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